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You are here: Home » Grades » 316/316L

316/316L

Alloys 316 (UNS S31600) and 316L (UNS S31603) are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels, which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels such as Alloy 304. These alloys also offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture, and tensile strength at elevated temperatures. In addition to excellent corrosion resistance and strength properties, the Alloys 316 and 316L Cr-Ni-Mo alloys also provide excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.



General Properties

Grade 316L may be considered for a wide variety of applications where one or more of the following properties are important:
Resists atmospheric corrosion, more resistant than Grade 304
Resists corrosion in polluted marine atmospheres
Heat Resistance
Heat Treatment
Prevention of product contamination
Resistance to oxidation
Easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.
Excellent formability
Hot and cold working
Beauty of appearance
Ease of cleaning
Good strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures
Ready availability of a wide range of product forms

Chemical Analiysis
Weight%(all values are maximum unless a range is otherwise indicated

Element 316 316L
Chromium 16.0min-18.0max 16.0min-18.0max
Nickel 10.0min-14.0max 10.0min-14.0max
Molybdenum 2.00min-3.00max 2.00min-3.00max
Carbon  0.08 0.03
Manganese 2 2
Phosphorous 0.045 0.045
Sulfur 0.03 0.03
Silicon 0.75 0.75
Nitrogen 0.1 0.1
Iron Blance Blance


Phsical propertise:

Density
0.285 lbs/in3
7.90 g/cm3   Specific Heat
Specific Heat 
0.11 BTU/lb-°F (32 – 212°F)
450 J/kg-°K (0 – 100°C) 
modulus of elasticity
29.0 x 106 psi 
200 GPa
Thermal Conductivity 212°F (100°C)
10.1 BTU/hr/ft2/ft/°F
14.6 W/m-°K
melting range
2450 – 2630°F
1390 – 1440°C 
Electrical Resistivity
29.1 Microhm-in at 68°C
74 Microhm-cm at 20°C


Mechanical propertis:

                                                                  ASTM
  Typical Type316 Type316L
0.2% offset Yield  Strength ,  ksi 85 30min 25min
Ultimate Tensile Strength, ksi 44 75min 70min
Elongation in 2 inches ,% 56 40min 40min
Reduction in Area ,% 69 -- --
Hardness Rockwell B 81 95max 95max


Application:
Chemical and Petrochemical Processing — pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping systems, flanges, fittings, valves and pumps
Food and Beverage Processing
Marine
Medical
Petroleum Refining
Pharmaceutical Processing
Power Generation — nuclear
Pulp and Paper
Textiles
Water Treatment

  • Corrosion resistance:

In most applications Alloy 316/316L has superior corrosion resistance to Alloy 304/304L. Process environments that do not corrode Alloy 304/304L will not attack this grade. One exception, however, is in highly oxidizing acids such as nitric acid where stainless steels containing molybdenum are less resistant. Alloy 316/316L performs well in sulfur containing service such as that encountered in the pulp and paper industry. The alloy can be used in high concentrations at temperatures up to 120°F (38°C).
Alloy 316/316L also has good resistance to pitting in phosphoric and acetic acid. It performs well in boiling 20% phosphoric acid. The alloy can also be used in the food and pharmaceutical process industries where it is utilized to handle hot organic and fatty acids in an effort to minimize product contamination.

Alloy 316/316L performs well in fresh water service even with high levels of chlorides. The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion in marine environments under atmospheric conditions.

The higher molybdenum content of Alloy 316/316L assures it will have superior pitting resistance to Alloy 304/304L in applications involving chloride solutions, particularly in an oxidizing environment.

In most instances, the corrosion resistance of Alloys 316 and 316L will be roughly equal in most corrosive environments. However, in environments that are sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones Alloy 316L should be used because of its low carbon content.

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